•Symbiosis: two or more organisms living in close contact with each other.
•Mutualism: refers to the interaction between two or more organisms,and where both organism may benefit from each other.
•parasitism: this is a form of symbiosis where one organism(parasite)lives on or in another organism(usually called host),in turn causing them harm.
•commensalism: a form of symbiosis where one organism benefit from another while the other remain unaffected from the interaction.
•mixotrophic: refers to organisms that uses a combination of different sources of energy and carbon.Examples; can use combination of phototrophy and chemotrophy,or a combination of autotrophy and heterotrophy.
•coencytic: refers to a multinucleated organism that results from multiple nuclear division without their accompanying cytokinesis.It has a continuous mass of protoplasm,and surrounded by a cell wall.
1)The eukaryotic cells/organisms contain a clearly defined nucleus and also contain the following:
•It is composed of a cytoskeleton(The cytoskeleton contains microfilaments and microtubules that supports the cell and allow it to manage change in shape,to transport material from one part of cell to other parts and to distribute daughter chromosomes).
•contain a flexible cell surface.
•The microtubules might evolved and developed into a flagellum in some cells.
•Chromosomes present inside a nuclear envelope.
•The securing of specific organelles by means of endosymbiosis
•The presence of digestive vacuoles.
2)The following evidence suggests that mitochondria and chloroplast have endosymbiotic(which states that some of the eukaryotic cells where once prokaryotic microbes) origin:
•Mitochondria and chloroplasts are of the same size as the prokaryotic cells and they both divide by binary fission.
• Mitochondria and chloroplast both have their own circular DNA.
•Mitochondria and chloroplast have their own 30s and 50s subunits ribosomes and not 40s and 60s.
3)The protists forms a paraphyletic group. Paraphyletic group is a group of organisms that consists of a recent,common ancestor and some,not all, of its descendants.
A scientist has developed a method for depositing laminin on the surface of tissue culture dishes. She expects to make a fortune by selling these dishes as improved adhesion surfaces for in vitro studies of all types of cell. What is your opinion?
Laminin refers to an extracellular protein, which exhibits the characteristic of binding the cells with each other, that is, possessing adhesive features. Generally, fibronectin is used for adhesion, however, it has also been found that coating of laminin can also be used for adhesion.
Laminin works in adhesion as it possesses three shorter arms that help in sticking other molecules together and assists in the formation of sheets. Laminin can also help in making the properties of adhesion better by combining with the receptors like integrin-binding receptors and the receptors present on the surface of the plasma membrane. Hence, in my opinion, using laminin on the surface of tissue culture dishes can improve the property of adhesion much more.
2. What does the term “-troph” mean?
an organism with nutritional requirements
it means an organism getting food in a specific way
Satish and his colleagues investigated the case of Timothy Ray Brown. They had genetic sequences from Brown's viral population before his marrow transplant, sequences from viruses that were supposedly detected in Brown after the transplant, sequences from common lab strains of HIV, and sequences from HIV in unrelated individuals. They used these sequences to build phylogenies. Sketch the sort of phylogeny you would expect to see if Brown were completely cured of HIV and contamination was to blame for detecting HIV in Brown's body. Sketch the sort of phylogeny you would expect to see if Brown were not completely cured of HIV and the results were not spurious.
The genetic disease in which (1) the 23rd pair of chromosomes is always involved, (2) there are always two chromosomes that comprise the 23rd pair, and (3) there is always something wrong with one or both of the chromosomes is called a _________________
The genetic disease in which (i) the 23rd pair of chromosomes is always involved, (ii) there are always two chromosomes that comprise the 23rd pair, and (iii) there is always something wrong with one or both of the chromosomes is called a Genetic abnormality.
A genetic abnormality is happens by one or more abnormalities in the genome. It can be occurred by a mutation in a single gene or multiple genes or by a chromosomal abnormality.
When an E. coli cell is infected by multiple phages, what route of infection (lytic or lysogenic) will the phages take? Why? Choose one: O A. either lytic or lysogenic because environmental conditions (such as nutrient levels) play a more important role in determining the type of infection O B. neither lytic nor lysogenic because an E. colicell cannot be infected by more than one phage at a time O C. lytic because the multiple phages in the E. colicell need to move from an area of high concentration inside the cell to infect other cells O D. lysogenic because infection by multiple phages suggests a high concentration of phages in the environment and increased competition for cells to infect
The correct option is 'A'
When E.coli is infected by multiple phages,they will take either lytic or lysogenic pathway.
The decision between lysogeny and lytic growth hinges on a delicate balance between the race of two regulatory genes that are C₁ ans Cro viz lambda repressor protein and Cro protein.
If C₁ gene manages to produce enouth repressor which binds or block Operators and turning off all early transcription including transcription Cro genes. That causes Lysogeny.
On the other hand, Cro gene codes for Cro protein which blocks operators and turning off C₁ genes transcription. This causes Lytic infection.
The winner of the race between C₁ and Cro is determined by the concentration of the gene product which is determined by cellular protease concentration. The CII concentration leads to lysogeny.
Directional selection acting upon a beneficial recessive allele will take longer to push this allele to fixation than for a beneficial dominant allele. Assume the selection coefficient is the same for each case.
Under the light of Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment, the ratio of the hetrozygous alleles always remain constant no matter what the circumstances are.
In the case of a dominant allele, it is very easy to be selected even when joined with a recessive part because that's the way of nature and in hetereozygous condition only the dominant phenotype appears and recessive expression gets masks din the process. It means it requires only one dominant parent to be major in the population. However, in the case of recessive allele, it's phenotype only appears when both of the parent recessive alleles are equally participating. That's why the recessive population is very low due to less rational selection.
"The view that philosophers need to focus less on the attempt to solve theoretical issues in environmental ethics and think instead about the best ways to solve real and pressing environmental problems is called____________
The view that philosophers need to focus less on the attempt to solve theoretical issues in environmental ethics and think instead about the best ways to solve real and pressing environmental problems is called theoretical philosophy. This branch of philosophy deals with environmental problems on a theoretical level. The ways that are devised by these disciplines may or may not be applicable in real life because of their theoretical approach.
Two common finch species found on the Galapagos Islands in the equatorial Pacific Ocean are the Medium Groundfinch (Geospiza fortis) and the Small Groundfinch (Geospiza fuliginosa). Both species consume seeds of grasses, herbs, and shrubs as their primary food source. The ability to manipulate and crack the seeds is related to the size and shape of the beaks of these birds. The two species co-occur on most islands of the Galapagos archipelago. However, on a few of the smallest islets only one or the other occur in isolation. G. fortis is the only ground finch found on the islet of Daphne. G. fuliginosa is the only ground finch species found on the islet of Los Hermanos.
Tries remaining: 2
Points out of 1.00
The data shown above reveal that:
1) The fundamental niche of G. fortis spans seeds from blank , and its realized niche from blank . G. fortis cannot feed on the blank seed types. Additionally, it avoids feeding on the blank seed types as long as enough of the blank seed types are still available. This is consistent with the hypothesis that G. fortis initially avoids seeds in its fundamental niche that blank and hence make less energy available to them for the same amount of time spent feeding.
2) The fundamental niche of G. fuliginosa spans seeds from blank ; and its realized niche from blank . G. fuliginosa cannot feed on the blank seed types. Additionally, it avoids feeding on the blank seed types as long as enough of the blank seed types are still available. This is consistent with the hypothesis that G. fuliginosa initially avoids seeds in its fundamental niche that blank and hence make less energy available to them for the same amount of time spent feeding.
Geospiza fortis finch species have higher evolved sizes and shapes of their beaks than that of Geospiza fuliginosa finch species
These are the main reasons that their primary source of energy is those seeds. Geospiza fortis is evolved enough to crack the seeds because of their enhanced beaks while Geospiza fuliginosa have already under evolved beaks that make them harder to crack thge seeds. This is all because of one species evolutionary advantage.
Consider a locus in which the fitness of AA and Aa genotypes are greater than the fitness of aa genotype. In addition, this locus experiences forward mutation from the A allele to a allele. At this locus, the A allele: a.will always go to fixation.
b.will always be lost.
c.will never go to fixation.
d.will never change.
e.None of the above.
Answer: b.will always be lost
Explanation:Mutations are sudden heritable changes that can be transferred from a generation to another. There are various kind of mutation;
1. Forward Mutation- This is a change from a wild type to a mutant.
Wild type is the common phenotype known to a spieces a sudden change to another phenotype outside the original is forward mutation E.g Allele A changes to allele a.
This Allele A will there fore be lost and the new allele effect will be seen. Forward mutation is very low in the population
Reverse mutation is change from a mutant gene to a wild type. A mutant phenotype changing to a wild type. Reverse restores forward mutation.
In response to seasonal changes in temperature, many organisms must alter the composition of their plasma membranes to maintain the proper degree of fluidity. Which change in the fatty acids of phospholipids would be most effective in maintaining membrane fluidity in a colder environment? A. an increase in phospholipid fatty acid side chain length and an increase in side chain saturationB. a decrease in phospholipid fatty acid side chain length and an increase in side chain saturationC. a decrease in phospholipid fatty acid side chain length and a decrease in side chain saturationD. an increase in phospholipid fatty acid side chain length and a decrease in side chain saturation
The correct answer is D
The cell membrane is essentially composed of the following:
The phospholipid consists of a hydrophilic phosphate 'head' and the tail is the hydrophobic fatty acid chain.When cellular membranes form,phospholipids collect into two layers in light of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. The phosphate heads in each layer face the fluid or watery condition on either side, and the tails conceal away from the water between the layers of heads, since they are hydrophobic.
There are 3 main factors that greatly influence the fluidity of the plasma membrane:
________ argued that all human languages have a common structural basis and that all humans have similar linguistic abilities. Noam Chomsky Benjamin Lee Whorf William Labov Deborah Tannen Edward Sapir
Answer: Noam Chomsky
How would genetically engineered proteins likely change when grown in organisms living in cold temperatures? Choose one: A. The proteins would likely interact with some of the already developed psychrophile proteins, which would act as chaperones. B. The proteins would likely be smaller so that they could move around the cell more quickly. C. The proteins would likely be larger because they have to work harder in the cold conditions. D. The proteins would likely be more flexible as the mutations increasing flexibility would be selected for in this environment. E. The proteins should not change since they are evolved to work best on the oil as they are; changing them would make the enzymes nonfunctional.
If your mom's family members all have very dark skin and your dad's family members all have very light skin, your skin color may be somewhere in between. Each parent's genes contributed in a(n) _________ fashion.
If your mom's family members all have very dark skin and your dad's family members all have very light skin, your skin color may be somewhere in between. Each parent's genes contributed in a ADDITIVE fashion.
Which moleclues prevents cell membranes from Dissvoling in water?
lipid molecules prevent membrane from dissolving and they are also known as phospholipids.
A lipid molecule could be imagined as rectangle. With one end i.e the bottom of the lipid molecule that is hydrophilic which means they are water-loving.
The other end of the head of the lipid molecule which is hydrophobic, which is the non-polar and water-fearing end of the molecule.
Within protective layer surrounding the outside cell(Cell membrane) there are large amounts of lipid molecules. Phospholipids are the most abundant that prevent membrane from dissolving.
Water is a polar solvent and prefers dissolving polar molecules such as salt but Lipids is a non polar molecule and can't be dissolved by water the presence in abundance prevents dissolution.
A gene has two alleles, E and e. Another gene also has two alleles, T and t. Which of the following correctly shows linkage between the two genes? Group of answer choices Te/Et Ete/T ET/et Ee/tT
Answer: ET/et, Te/Et
Gene linkage is the ability of DNA sequences that are close together usually on a chromosome to be inherited together.
during the meiosis in sexual reproduction two genes that are physically close to each other are not likely to separate from each other to different chromatids during chromosome crossover but are rather linked and inherited together. Genes that are close on the chromosome are said to be more linked than gene that are far apart.
If two genes on a chromosome are close there is low chance of recombination between them, and they are likely to be inherited together. Gene on different chromosomes are not linked.
Answer: ET/et and also Te/Et
When genes are on separate chromosomes, they tend to assort independently meaning that due to the random position/placement of the homologous chromosomes pair on the metaphor plate during meiosis, the homologous chromosomes assort independently.
Application A small child announces to her parents that she is going to hold her breath until they let her watch more television. Explain how the child's blood carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions, and bicarbonate ions levels change during breath holding.
Breathing is the process of exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the body and the environment. The exchange of gases depends upon the partial pressure of oxygen.
When the individual hold its breath, the amount of oxygen level in the body gets decreased. This increases the carbon dioxide level in the body. The increase in the carbon dioxide level reduces pH and increase the hydrogen ions in the body. The biocarbonate levels in the body also increases.
Research has found that taste information is sent to the pons and medulla. suprachiasmatic nucleus. cerebellum and parietal lobe. insula and frontal operculum.
Erin is a 28-year-old professional woman who is 5 feet 8 inches tall and vigilantly maintains her weight at 118 pounds by following a lacto-ovo (non-fat milk and egg whites only) vegetarian diet that supplies approximately 1200 calories a day. With her understanding that protein should provide between 10 and 35 percent of her daily calories, she reasons that her daily intake of 40 grams of protein from milk, eggs, legumes, and nuts is adequate for her needs. She is concerned, however, that she has been sick more than usual and has experienced two stress fractures in her leg over the past three years while exercising. How many kcals per day should she take in for optimal energy intake?
The balanced diet is the diet that contains the enough amount of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamin, fats, minerals and roughage. This balanced diet is important for all age groups.
According to the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance), the minimum calories that must be obtained by 28 years old woman is around 1600 clories per day. The intake of less than this amount of calories might cause fatigue, stress and other health related problems.
Thus, the answer is 1800 calories.
Louis Pasteur said, "The role of the infinitely small in nature is infinitely large." Explain what he meant, using examples of the roles of microorganisms in health, industry, and the environment.
Those organisms which can not be seen by the naked eye is called microorganism. Microorganisms can be harmful and beneficial to human welfare.
These are the following microorganism are:-
These small micro-organisms are very beneficial to human welfare. The benefits they gave to humans are as follows:-
Hence, "The role of the infinitely small in nature is infinitely large."
For more information, refer to the link:-
HEALTH SECTOR(microorganisms have led to the most devastating diseases of man such as HIV VIRUS, HEPATITIS VIRUS, SALMONELLA TYPHI AND PARATYPHI SPPS)
INDUSTRY(microorganisms have led to masses losses due to contamination of foods like the GROWTH OF MOLDS)
ENVIRONMENT most contamination of the environment are caused by microorganisms.
Explanation:Louis Pasteur meant that with the microscopic nature of microorganisms they have been able to make great impact in the world.
IN THE HEALTH SECTOR Microorganisms have been the major cause of the diseases of human and animals world wide, diseases such as Hepatitis A,B,C Virus,Typhoid caused by Bacteria (Salmonella typhy and paratyphy spp) etc have been a cause of a huge number of death.
Microorganisms are major causes of loss in the industries leading to large scale contamination of food products, such as Fungi infestation on foods especially of plants origin. MICROORGANISMS ALSO HAVE BENEFITS IN THE INDUSTRY AS IT IS USED IN THE FERMENTATION OF FOOD PRODUCTS.
IN THE ENVIRONMENT
Microorganisms are the major cause of environmental hazards such as the contamination of water bodies, the air (THE HUMAN FLU VIRUS) etc ALL THESE MICROORGANISMS HAVE CAUSED MASSIVE DEATHS THE WORLD OVER.
elect one or more: a. Mice have a more stable population size (N) through time when they coexist with voles than in the absence of voles. b. Badgers have a more stable population size (N) through time when they coexist with both mice and voles, rather than with only one of the two species. c. Voles have a more stable population size (N) through time when they coexist with mice than in the absence of mice. d. Voles have a more stable population size (N) through time when they coexist with bison than in the absence of bison. e. Voles have a consistently larger population size (N) when they coexist with mice than in the absence of mice. f. Voles have dramatic swings in population size (N) through time when they coexist with mice than in the absence of mice.
The Yellowstone nourishment web given shows that voles and mice subject to grasses and herbs. The badger rely upon the two voles and mice. This perception can be induced as that voles can keep up bigger populace when they exist with mice. This is on the grounds that the badgers prey both on mice and voles yet not the only one on voles. Thus, the mice can likewise keep up a steady populace on coexisting with voles as there is equivalent open door for mice and voles be implored up on by badgers. The badgers can keep up a steady populace when they rely upon the two mice and voles for their nourishment. In this manner, the alternatives a,b