Positive reinforcer is a whiny behaviour that makes Jona begs her father for a chocolate cupcake at the bakery but he refuses to buy her one. Jona continues to whine and complain until finally he breaks down and gets her the cupcake.
Jona complains and whining brought her a reward, what jona wanted was not present but after she engaged in the behaviour what she wanted is present.
A person assembling a tool one week after reading the instructions can remember the first and last steps of the procedure but not the middle ones. This best illustrates which of the following?
the serial position effect
The Serial-position effect is the propensity and likelihood of an individual to recall the first and last items in a series best, and that of the middle items worst. The term was introduced by Hermann Ebbinghaus through several studies he performed on himself, and submits to the study that recall accuracy differs as a function of an item's position within a study list.
Sofia does not like eating vegetables. To ensure that she eats vegetables, her mother offers her an extra helping of dessert every time Sofia finishes her vegetables. In the context of behaviorism, this is known as____ A. reinforcement
Answer: (A) Reinforcement
A reinforcement is the term which is used to refers to the psychological behavior that helps in strengthening the future of an organisms by measuring the various types of factors such as high magnitude, behavior and the short latency.
According to the given question, Sofia's other offers her extra dessert when she finishes vegetables and this type of behaviorism is refers to the reinforcement effect.
Therefore, Option (A) is correct answer.
John has inherited a personality trait that makes him more likely to keep to himself than to socialize. As a result, he does not have many friends and spends a lot of time alone. If John were to develop depression, the model that would probably best explain this situation and the cause of his depression is:_________.1. Diathesis-stress2. Biological3. Interpersonal4. Reciprocal gene environment
4. Reciprocal gene environment
Reciprocal gene environment depression refers to abnormal or irregular behaviour cause by inherited personality trait or genetic configuration
When grading final exams, Professor Henry Jones notices that most students scored well on the content he presented in his first lecture of the semester, but scored low on concepts from last week's class. What explains the discrepancy in the students' memories?
Recency effect is the belief that audience's retention of information or ideas or in short-term memory is dependent on the order of presentation. More recently acquired information are easily and well remembered to make judgement or decision than the earlier acquired information.
According to the text, how do sedentism and domestication represent a change in worldview? People are more aware of the value of the natural environment Land is transformed into owned territories Plants and animals become objects of worship ____________.
Land is transformed into owned territories
Sedentism involves living permanently in a place over a long period of time. Sedentism is quite connected to domestication which involves taming of animals. Overtime sedent acquire more lands, transformed it into territories and farmland where animal are also domesticated
According to the principle of equality, in order to treat people differently in ways that deny them significant social benefits one need only show that there are real differences between them.
The term 'equality', in simple terms, can be defined as a state of being equal.
The principle of equality ensures that each individual has equal opportunities regardless of their birth origin, race, gender, etc.
The principle of equality does not encourage to create differences between the people, who are denied their social benefits, by telling them of the real differences. Instead, the principle of equality states to respect the differences.
So, the statement provided in the question is wrong. And the answer is false.
According to the theory about the impact of the social clock on adult life events, which of the following individual patterns is associated with the most upheaval, disruption or personal difficulty - at least for current cohorts?
- Having your parents both die when you are in your 20s.
As per the theory regarding the impact of the social clock on the events of adult life, the individual patterns associated with the most disturbance, current cohorts, or personal difficulty would be 'having your both parents die when one is in the 20s'. The social clock has a significant impact on directing the evolution of a person with the age and if parents of an individual die before him/her, especially when they are in their teenage. This leads to have a considerable impact on the development or evolution of him/her as they lose their guide in life which makes them suffer upheaval, disturbance, confusion, and personal struggles and strains. Thus, this would be most affiliated to the disruptive state in individuals.
In the U.S., the ascribed statuses of race and gender can function as master statuses that have an important impact on one's potential to achieve a desired professional and social status. A. True B. False
Ascribed statuses lies beyond the control of an individual. It is something people either born with or have no control over, for example of the sex, race, and age. A master status determines the social position of a person and the position to which the person most relates while trying to express himself to others. Therefore they played a significant influence in achieving one's potential to achieve a desired professional and social status.
U.S. Government securities: A. trades settle "regular way" in 3 business days
B. are exempt securities under the Securities Act of 1933
C. are sold through prospectus offerings
D. are implicitly backed by the U.S. Government
When Wendy’s sorority sisters discover that Wendy is a lesbian, they hold a secret meeting to decide if Wendy should still be allowed to pledge. A handful of the sisters vote "no." This is an example of:_______.A. Homophobia. B. Social imperialism.
D. Doing gender.
George Weinberg first introduced the term homophobia in 1972 and identified it as an irrational fear, hate, and disgust of homosexual men and women in confined spaces. It portrays out in many different ways in different culture, both latent and explicit. Less noticeable types include a lack of recognition of same-sex couples in the entertainment industry and particularly ethnically diverse couples. Wendy's refusal by her sisters an example of Homophobia.
The ethical thought of Confucius sprang from Confucius' realization that the basic problem of humanity was: a. overpopulation
b. ignorance and lack of education
c. social chaos
d. political corruption
c. social chaos
Those who score above average on tests of mathematical aptitude are also likely to score above average on tests of verbal aptitude. According to Spearman, this best illustrates the importance of: a. existential intelligence.
b. multiple intelligence.
c. the g factor.
d. factor analysis.
Answer is C, the g factor
The g factor is also known as the general intelligence factor, and was made known or explained in 1904 by Charles Spearman.
He explained the general intelligence factor as an underlying factor which is the foundation or source of all intellectual abilities.
Spearman also made known that the level of intelligence might determine the level of specific abilities.
Therefore, those that score average mark in mathematical aptitude are likely to score more than average in verbal aptitude because of g factor
Answer: the answer is (C) the g factor
According to Spearman, this best illustrates the importance of the g factor; the g factor also referred to as general intelligence is responsible for overall performance on mental ability tests across varying subjects and topics.
What is the definition of plagiarism? A. Sharing class notes or study questions with classmates for a group project. B. Using someone else's words or ideas without giving credit to that person. C. Using un-authorized information when taking an exam. D. Copying more than five words of a quotation without citing it. E. Sharing old assignments, or allowing others to copy your work.
B. Using someone else's words or ideas without giving credit to that person
Answer: B.Using someone else's words or ideas without giving credit to that person.
If research continues to indicate that the SAT is biased against students from low socio-economic backgrounds and does not reflect their knowledge or skills, what does that mean for the test psychometric properties?
It means that the test would have high reliability and not so for the validity.
Even though the test may have reliabiltiy because it can be consistent in some of the structure of evaluation. This doesn't mean that it would be a valid test, because it is biased.
The psychometrc propertes are measured both by validity and reliabiltiy. This means the score can be reliable but as it is biased, it is not reflecting the knowlede and skills so it loses it's validity.
Diffusion is: ____A. the movement of a substance across a membrane. B. the movement of a substance by osmosis. C. the movement of substances from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. D. the tendency of molecules to move in space due to kinetic energy.
Movement of things from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration through semi-permeable membrane is refereed to as diffusion.
There are two types of diffusion:
Despite the fact that Feodor's hand shakes, and he has a difficult time walking and positioning and moving his body to get in and out of chairs, he remains mentally sharp. Feodor appears to have
Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disease that comes as a disorder and affects its victim’s movement. The symptoms start in a gradual form, sometimes the starting symptoms will be a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are the most common trait, but some victims might experience disorder and stiffness or slowing of movement.
Although Parkinson's disease is one of the most incurable diseases, judicious medications might drastically improve improve the situation positively. Occasionally, doctor may recommend going for surgery to normalize certain parts of your brain thereby improving your state.
Derek likes to bully his little brother Matt. Their mother begins to give Derek the mild punishment of a stern look every time Derek hits Matt. This is sufficient to stop Derek's bullying, and in time, Derek stops bullying Matt even when his mother is not around. According to theories of insufficient punishment, why might this happen?
Because there was insufficient external justification for resisting, Derek began to devalue the forbidden activity
Insufficient theories of punishment are related to the dissonance in which a person feels the lack of sufficient external justification. This is the justification for devaluing for the forbidden things. There was an experiment was done by Aron-son and Carl-smith.
They threaten the child with mild or severe punishment when they play with their favored toys. So that none of the children play with their favored toy when they left alone. But the child who was less threatening has been played with toy more than the children who threatened more.
George Sperling was able to differentiate between the amount of information that could be stored in sensory memory and the time until the memory faded by cuing participants to recallA) an entire visual scene from memory. B) a row of letters in a visual array. C) the first letters of words in a visual array.D) the second of three sentences in a visual array
B) a row of letters in a visual array
The experiment conducted by Sperling was intended to proof the existence of Visual sensory memory and to find out whether this memory have a certain set of duration or capacity between individuals.
In the experiment, He made the subjects to look at a computer and the screen will briefly show a row of letters to the subjects. The result show that The subjects could see the letters and recall them, proving the existence of visual memory. But the duration of this memory is so short since most subjects only capably to remember those letters for a couple of minutes.
Most successful politicians are shrewd and practical in the decisions they make. Therefore Mayor O'Connell will be shrewd and practical in her decisions, since she is a successful politician is an example of:________. a) enumerative induction.b) statistical syllogism.c) causal argument.d) analogy.
Answer:. B) statistical syllogism.
Explanation: Statistical syllogism is an non deductive(an inductive) argument which uses a generalised argument based on a Statistical metric or findings to describe a particular case or situation. Statistical syllogism does not put into consideration the individual case before making a conclusion regarding that case.
THE USE OF A GENERALISED STATISTICAL CONCLUSION ON POLITICIANS TO DESCRIBE MAYOR O'CONNELL WILL BE SHREWD AND PRACTICAL IN HER DECISIONS IS A STATISTICAL SYLLOGISM.
Georgia likes to make tuna fish sandwiches for lunch. She uses her electric can opener and then usually gives the can with a few bits of tuna left inside to the cat as a treat. Georgia recently noticed that the cat comes running into the kitchen every time she uses her can opener to open anything, not just tuna fish. The cat's behavior when it hears the sound of the can opener is a result of:
The cat's behavior when it hears the sound of the can opener is a result of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a learning process whereby a conditioned stimulus such as the sound of a can opener becomes associated with an unrelated unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response such as the running of the dog to the kitchen.
The behaviour of George's dog is an example of classical conditioning, the dog now associates the sound of can opener to the making of tuna fish sandwich.